What causes pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection usually caused by bacteria that have traveled to the kidney from an infection in the bladder. Women have more bladder infections (also called urinary tract infections) than men because the distance to the bladder from skin, where bacteria normally live, is quite short and direct.
How does pyelonephritis affect the body?
Pyelonephritis may also cause one or both kidneys to swell and become painful. Infection impairs the kidneys’ ability to filter waste products out of the blood, and a build up of toxins in the blood will lead to fever, vomiting, and nausea.
What is the best treatment for pyelonephritis?
Outpatient oral antibiotic therapy with a fluoroquinolone is successful in most patients with mild uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Other effective alternatives include extended-spectrum penicillins, amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
What does pyelonephritis mean?
Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection where one or both kidneys become infected. They can be infected by bacteria or a virus. It can cause people to feel very sick and it requires treatment. This article will tell you more about kidney infection and what to do about it.
Is pyelonephritis serious?
Acute pyelonephritis is a sudden and severe kidney infection. It causes the kidneys to swell and may permanently damage them. Pyelonephritis can be life-threatening.
What are the risk factors of pyelonephritis?
- Being female.
- Having a urinary tract blockage.
- Having a weakened immune system.
- Having damage to nerves around the bladder.
- Using a urinary catheter for a time.
- Having a condition that causes urine to flow the wrong way.
What is the most common cause of pyelonephritis?
The main cause of acute pyelonephritis is gram-negative bacteria, the most common being Escherichia coli. Other gram-negative bacteria which cause acute pyelonephritis include Proteus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter. In most patients, the infecting organism will come from their fecal flora.
How can you tell the difference between UTI and pyelonephritis?
A urinary tract infection is inflammation of the bladder and/or the kidneys almost always caused by bacteria that moves up the urethra and into the bladder. If the bacteria stay in the bladder, this is a bladder infection. If the bacteria go up to the kidneys, it is called a kidney infection or pyelonephritis.
What are the symptoms of acute pyelonephritis?
Symptoms & Causes of Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
- pain in your back, side, or groin.
- cloudy, dark, bloody, or foul-smelling urine.
- frequent, painful urination.
How long do you treat pyelonephritis?
In the current International Clinical Practice Guidelines for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis, the recommended duration of treatment for pyelonephritis is 7 days for fluoroquinolones, 10–14 days for β-lactams and 14 days for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
Can pyelonephritis be treated?
Outpatient Treatment. Most cases of uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis can be managed in the outpatient setting. However, patients who appear ill may have severe pyelonephritis or a complication of acute pyelonephritis and should be considered for hospitalization and further evaluation (Table 514).
Is pyelonephritis painful?
Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidneys. While most episodes clear without causing lasting renal damage, it can be severe and is usually quite painful, although few patients will need to be hospitalised.
What is pyelonephritis and how is it treated?
Doctors treat pyelonephritis with antibiotics. In most uncomplicated cases of pyelonephritis, the antibiotic can be given orally (by mouth), and treatment usually lasts for 7 to 10 days.
Can you have pyelonephritis without fever?
Up to 20% of patients do not have bladder symptoms, and some patients do not have fever. Clinical presentations and disease severity vary widely, from mild flank pain with low-grade or no fever to septic shock.
How painful is a kidney infection?
Symptoms of a kidney infection often come on within a few hours. You can feel feverish, shivery, sick and have a pain in your back or side. In addition to feeling unwell like this, you may also have symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI) such as cystitis.